Sightings: Dinoman

[For those who still cannot get their heads around Reptilian beings.]

by T. L. Keller 

Chicxulub                                            the name of the Mexican town nearest the location of the asteroid crater in the Yucatan peninsula.

Cretaceous                                         latest geological period of the Mesozoic Era and the time of the extinction of toothed birds and dinosaurs and the development of early mammals.

dinosaurid                                           a creature evolved from four-limbed reptiles of the Mesozoic Era, referred to as a “lizard man.”

encephalization                                  the development of a brain.

ETI                                                      Extraterrestrial Intelligence

humanoid                                            nearly human, as in appearance and behavior.

Reptilian                                             an ETI being evolved from reptiles.

Background

In his 2010 book, Light at the End of the Tunnel 1,Paul Hellyer, the former Canadian Minister of National Defence  and Minister of Transport, states that:

“The Visitors comprise more than one species from more than one source.  These include Zeta Reticuli, the Pleiades, Orion, Andromeda and Altair star systems. 2  The short greys, as they are called, have been the most reported, and they are the ones recovered from various crashes including Roswell.  There are others including Tall Grays, Nordic Blonds, Semitics and Reptilians, each with their own distinct characteristics.” 3

It’s this last category, the Reptilians, that are often discounted as being “impossible.”  How could a bunch of educated reptiles pilot a star ship from another star system to Earth? Well, if you’re a Trekker and have an open mind, it’s not so difficult to accept.  Those of us of a certain age remember the Star Trekepisode, “The Arena,” when Captain Kirk was in mortal combat with a Reptilian, “Gorn” commander.  But that’s just science fiction, isn’t it?  But, what about actual sightings?  There have been any number of sightings of Reptilian ETI beings over the years.  One of the most illuminating was reported by Linda Moulton Howe in her 1993 book, Glimpses of Other Realities: Vol. 1, Facts and Eyewitnesses4  In that book, Howe reports the case of Jeanne Robinson of Springfield, Missouri.  In 1990 she had an encounter with a Reptilian ETI being best described as a humanoid figure with very large yellow-orange eyes and vertical pupils.  The being had small nostrils, no ears, a small mouth and a pronounced rib cage. Of course, the question is how could such a being have evolved on an exoplanet?

Reptilian [5]

The Science

What would have likely happened on Earth if the Chicxulub asteroid had notcrashed into the Yucatan peninsula 65 million years ago?  That asteroid brought about the end to the age of the dinosaurs (the Cretaceous). As a result, existing groups of mammals flourished and eventually evolved into the mammals we know today. But what if … what if there had been no asteroid?  The reptiles, some of them at least, could have evolved into a “humanoid” form. That is the substance of this article — looking at what might have evolved right here on Earth.  Join us on this voyage of discovery.

In the article “A New Look at Dinosaurs” in the August 1978 edition of National Geographic , John H. Ostrom, Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology at the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, described the remains of a newly-discovered carnivorous biped found near Billings, Montana. Named Deinonychus(“terrible claw”), this fast, light-weight dinosaur lived nearly a hundred million years ago. These creatures were on the order of 150 pounds, stood approximately four to five feet in height and were eight to nine feet from nose-tip to the end of their tail. According to Ostrom, they were perfectly equipped to be a warm-blooded predator. These beasts had powerful hind legs for running down quarry. As their Latin name implies, the animal had an enormous claw on each of its hind legs for slashing. One can imagine this creature standing on one hind leg while using the other to reach out and slash at its victim. That would require excellent eye-foot coordination. Their front legs, useless for standing, had articulated “hands” for good grasping. According to Ostrom, the long hands had three muscular fingers with large claws. The wrist joints were such that they allowed the hands to turn toward each other permitting grasping by both hands working together. There is also evidence thatDeinonychushunted in packs and was a social animal. Warm-blooded animals are normally associated with this behavior. Recalling Steven Spielberg’s 1993 blockbuster, Jurassic Park, the two Veloceraptorsdepicted in the kitchen scene were about the same size, had large talons for slashing and hunted in groups.

Stenonychosaurus [7]

Enter Center Stage: Dinoman

Fast forward to 1982, Ottawa, Canada. Paleontologists Dale A. Russell and R. Seguin of the Canadian Museum of Nature didn’t take it as science fiction. Fifteen years earlier in 1967 a partial skeleton of a small dinosaur had been unearthed in Alberta. This dinosaur had the largest brain cavity compared to body weight of any animal, reptile or otherwise, on Earth. This provided the basis of the first skeletal and flesh restoration of the most intelligent known dinosaur, a five-foot tall forest dweller called Stenonychosaurus.  This process of fleshing out a partial skeleton and building a model was the basis of Russell and Sequin’s paper. They didn’t stop there. They posed the question, what would this small but intelligent dinosaur evolve into had the dinosaurs not succumbed to the Chicxulub asteroid at the end of the Cretaceous Period? Unlike many scientists, Russell and Sequin used a rather conservative approach to futuristic speculation from there on. They assumed it had an enlarged brain, a short neck and upright posture (i.e., bipedal). This would allow the head to be balanced and subject to less shock than with a long neck as its predecessor had. The long tail, which was used by the dinosaur for balance, disappeared. The ankles were lowered closer to the ground and the foot was lengthened. Result: sixty-five million years of Darwinian evolution. The lizard man was called by Russell and Sequin a “dinosaurid”. I prefer the name dinoman.

Dinoman and Stenonychosaurus [8]

Jeff Hecht and Gurney Williams III in their article in the May 1982 issue of OMNImagazine 9said Russell believed that the brain of Stenonychosauruswould have inevitably increased in size. A trend toward larger and larger brain capacity had been established before the end of the dinosaurs. That inevitability might have led to a bi-pedal, warm-blooded, intelligent dinosaur walking the Earth probably well before humans ever did … if it were not for the random strike of a massive asteroid.

 “With this starting point, Russell and Sequin began making their model of a twentieth-century dinosaur by building a skull. While maintaining the characteristic shape of the dinosaur’s brain, they increased its volume by about 1.1 liters — just about the same as that of the brain cavity of a small human skeleton in the Canadian National Museum’s collection. The growth in brain size would be accompanied by a relative decrease in face size, because the brain would take up more room inside the skull. In keeping with a trend already established in Stenonychosaurus and duplicated in the anthropoid apes, Russell and Seguin assumed that the teeth would shrink, eventually vanishing in the dinosaurid, to be replaced by a hard chewing surface (“keratinous occlusal surface”) similar to a turtle’s. The large size of the eyes comes from the dinosaur, whose ovoid eyes were nearly two inches in diameter.

“After they built the skull they went to work on the rest of the skeleton. They chose an upright posture on the assumption that it takes less energy to balance a large skull on an upright backbone than to hang it on the end of a horizontal neck, as was the case in the dinosaur. A shorter neck would reduce the amount of bouncing around that the fragile brain would have to withstand. The tail, which helped balance the horizontal body in the dinosaur, would become unnecessary and would presumably disappear when the animal stood erect. The upright posture would also enable the creature to use tools, while the comparatively broad shoulders would be useful in throwing things. Although details of the bone structure in the legs differ from those in humans, the proportions are similar because they appear to be an efficient solution to the problem of walking upright. The dinoman’sthree-fingered hands originated with the dinosaur.

“After filling in the details of the skeleton, Russell and Sequin added flesh to the hypothetical bones. They chose a lizard-like skin similar to the hide they used in the reconstruction of the dinosaur. The flap of skin under the chin is a reptilian dewlap, an evolutionary vestige and secondary sexual feature.

 “Because laying eggs would require an exceptionally large pelvic canal, Russell assumed that the young would be born alive. He added a navel to the model. But he didn’t include nipples; he supposed that immature young would be fed regurgitated food rather than milk. As is so of birds and reptiles, neither ears nor sexual organs are evident. Though Russell does not accept recent speculations that large dinosaurs were warm-blooded animals, he believes that the dinosaurid would have evolved this characteristic somewhere on the road to intelligence. Warm-bloodedness, he says, would have given the dinosaurid a capacity for sustained movement that reptiles don’t usually have. Its speed and endurance would have been comparable to those of humans.

“’Would the dinosaurid have developed a language? ‘That is a difficult question. I don’t know.‘ ‘At what level of encephalization [stage of brain development] does language become inevitable?’  ‘Porpoises have a kind of signal system,’ he says, ‘and porpoises are less encephalized than the dinosaurid would have been. Therefore, dinosaurids might have some incipient system of communication,’ Russell concludes.”

Dinoman [10]

“No matter how fast or slow it would have climbed the evolutionary ranks, however, it would have overpowered our mammalian predecessors. Not that they would have died out, but they would have remained at the earth-scratching level of rodents.

“’Dinosaurs and mammals coexisted for a hundred million years,’ Russell says, ‘and mammalian levels of encephalization were static. A conservative extrapolation would be that mammals would continue to be rodent-like or insectivore-like, as they were then and as some still are, and they would be poorly encephalized. The dinosaurs were bigger creatures. They would have preempted the niche that has been occupied by mammals. They would have followed the actual mammalian curve of encephalization into the future they never had.’”  

Russell contends that there is no reason Stenonychosauruscould not have evolved into dinomanhad the dinosaurs not been wiped out by the asteroid and replaced by mammals. Following on this concept, we can also speculate that evolution, leading to a gradual advancement of intelligence, may be the normal result of the progress of life elsewhere in the Universe. Evolution, at least as far as Darwin was concerned, was a natural process in which different species adapt to their local environment. Scientists (at least most) believe that living organisms unconsciously adopt new behaviors so that they may live in their environments more successfully. For some creatures, only their skin color or hair may change. For others, more drastic adaptations may be needed to give them quicker reflexes, extra strength and, yes, greater intelligence. Thus, after generations of adaptation, those with greater skills survive and increase in numbers while those with lesser skills do not. 

Throughout history, at least here on Earth, some, but not all, creatures have become more intelligent, the inevitable result of evolution. The result of the Russell/Sequin model may be that the general body form of Homo sapiens— two legs, two arms, two stereoscopic eyes, one head on a relatively short neck — may be the standard for intelligent, land-based life (although not necessarily all intelligent life) elsewhere in the Universe.

Commentary

When one compares the Russell/Sequin model to the ETI being reported by Jeanne Robinson, a very close match is clearly evident.  The similarity in the shape of the heads, skin color, the size of the eyes, the eye pupils, the nose and mouth, neck structure and even the apparent chest “bone” appearance indicate more than just a coincidence.  One must keep in mind that Russell and Sequin were simply theorizing on how an Earth-evolved being might look if that asteroid didn’t come crashing to Earth 65 million years ago.  They had no concept of what a Reptilian might look like that evolved from dinosaurs on another planet.

Notes

  1. Hellyer, Paul, Light at the End of the Tunnel, 2010, AuthorHouse, page 77.
  2. Chris Stoner in an interview with Dr. Michael Wolf, former U.S. National Security Council’s Special Studies (UFO) Group and Jim Sparks in The Keepers.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Howe, Linda Moulton, Glimpses of Other Realities: Vol. 1, Facts and Eyewitnesses, 1993.  www.earthfiles.com
  5. Keller, T. L., The Total Novice’s Guide to UFOs, 2010, 2FSPress, page 336.  Re-printed with permission.
  6. Ostrom, John H., “A New Look at Dinosaurs,” National Geographic, August 1978. 
  7. Courtesy of David Norman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs, 1985.
  8. Russell, Dale A. and R. Seguin,  Canadian Museum of Nature, 1982.
  9. Hecht , Jeff and Gurney Williams III, OMNImagazine, May 1982. 
  10. Op. cit., Russell and Seguin.

© 2019 T. L. Keller

T. L. Keller can be contacted at www.2FSPress.com